Antonov An-28 / An-38
Antonov An-28 / An-38
The Antonov An-28 and An-38 are small twin-engine turboprop aircraft intended as short-range airliners and suitable for a number of other duties.
The An-28 (NATO reporting name 'Cash') was developed from the An-14 'Pchelka' piston engine aircraft (NATO: 'Clod'), a small twin-engine utility aircraft developed during the 1950s as a replacement for the Antonov An-2 biplane. It seated up to eight passengers and first flew on 15 March 1958. Serial production started in 1966 and until 1972 around 300 aircraft were built. The An-14 was fitted with two Ivchenko AI-14RF radial piston engines and twin rudders. The aircraft had excellent short take-off and landing (STOL) capabilities.
Antonov became the winner of an Aeroflot competition between the An-28 and the Beriev Be-30 for a small, short-range airliner during the late 1960s. The An-28 was originally designated 'An-14A' and the prototype was named 'An-14M'. The aircraft has a stretched fuselage and turboprop engines but it kept its predecessor's wing structure and twin rudders. It can be equipped with skis and float-type landing gear. The aircraft seats up to 20 passengers and is flown by a two-man crew. It can also be used as a cargo aircraft, for search and rescue operations, as an air ambulance and other tasks.
The An-28 first flew in September 1969 and the first pre-production model made its maiden flight in 1975. After a short pre-production series built by Antonov itself, al subsequent aircraft were built under licence in Poland by PZL Mielec. The first Polish built aircraft flew in 1984. PZL Mielec also developed its own improved variant, the PZL M28 Skytruck (An-28PT), with Pratt & Whitney PT6A engines. It first flew on 22 July 1993 and is still in production. The original An-28 remained in production until 1993 after around 200 were built.
The AN-38 is a further stretched and improved version of the An-28 seating up to 27 passengers or carrying 2,500 kg of cargo. It has more powerful engines, an improved cockpit and better passenger cabin comfort than the An-28. The crew can easily convert the cabin from cargo to passenger layout.
The An-38 has a fixed tricycle landing gear, fitted with low-pressure tyres to enable it to land and take off on unpaved and ice and snow covered runways. The aircraft is equipped with a hand-driven overhead-track hoist for handling cargo without the support of airport ground equipment.
The An-38 can be fitted with Honeywell TPE331 or Omsk TVD-20 turboprops, and with Western or CIS avionics. The first flight with the TPE331-version, the An-38-100, took place on 23 June 1994 and certification followed in April 1997. The Omsk TVD-20 version, the An-38-200, first flew on 11 December 2001 and was certified in November 2002. Subversions of the An-38-100 are the An-38-110 and An-38-120 with different avionics suites. The AN-38K is a freighter version. There are also variants for VIP transport, surveillance and other tasks.
The An-38-100 is produced by NAPO in Russia. Around a dozen of the type have been built.
Antonov An-28 Specifications
Wingspan: 22,06 m (72 ft 4 in). Length: 12,98 m (42 ft 6 in). Height: 4,60 m (15 ft 1 in).
Empty weight: 3,900 kg (8,600 lb). Max. takeoff weight: 6,100 kg (13,450 lb).
Capacity: 18 passengers. Range: 510 km (270 nm). Cruise speed: 350 km/h (190 kts).
Engines: two Glushenkov TVD-10B or Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-65B turboprops (960 shp - 720 kW).
M28 Skytruck Specifications
Wingspan: 22,06 m (72 ft 4 in). Length: 13,10 m (43 ft). Height: 4,90 m (16 ft 1 in).
Empty weight: 4,100 kg (9,309 lb). Max. takeoff weight: 7,500 kg (16,535 lb).
Capacity: 19 passengers. Range: 1,500 km (810 nm). Cruise speed: 270 km/h (146 kts).
Engines: two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-65B turboprops (1,100 shp - 820 kW). (Photo: PZL Mielec/United Technologies)